Exciting findings on ADHD comorbidities shared on 3rd meeting of CoCA researchers in Dublin

A few weeks ago, researches from all over Europe (and some even from the USA) gathered in Dublin to discuss the progress of the CoCA project. This project, investigating the prevalence and causal factors of ADHD comorbidities, is now almost half way. Time for an update on what’s happening. 

CoCA Dublin
All attendees of CoCA’s 3rd general assembly meeting in Dublin

ADHD is a risk factor for developing other (psychiatric) disorders

One of CoCA’s aims is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid disorders that occur together with ADHD. By using very large data registries from Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Estonia we can estimate the risk of developing a psychiatric comorbidity when a person has ADHD. For instance, last month a paper was published based on data from Norway, stating that the prevalence of anxiety, depression, bipolar and personality disorders, schizophrenia and substance use disorders is 4 to 9 times higher in adults with ADHD compared to adults without ADHD [1]. Interesting differences between men and women were also observed in this study. Such that depression is much more prevalent in women with ADHD, compared to women without, while in men substance use disorders are more common together with ADHD.

ADHD does not only co-occur with other psychiatric disorders, but also with obesity. Earlier last year, we published a study based on the Swedish national registry, where it was observed that ADHD and being overweight or having obesity share familial risk factors [2]. In other words, when you have a sibling who is overweight or has obesity, you are more likely to have ADHD compared to similar people who do not have overweight siblings.

The data from these registries can not only be used to estimate prevalence, but also to predict the risk someone has to develop other disorders. Our partners in the USA are using advanced machine learning tools to predict within the ADHD population who will develop comorbid disorders. Using the Swedish registry data they have found that having an ADHD diagnosis combined with a high number of injuries before the age of 12 predicts a comorbid substance use disorder at a later age. High risk taking behavior could mediate this association, and may therefore be a trait to investigate further and monitor in young people with ADHD. These data are now being further investigated and have not yet been published.

Publications on other registries and data will come out soon, so keep your eye on this blog for more information on the co-occurrence of (psychiatric) disorders in persons with ADHD.

ADHD and (psychiatric) comorbidities share genetic variants

When you know that ADHD often co-occurs with other disorders, the next question is to understand how and why. Our geneticists are trying to map the genetic overlap between the different disorders and identify shared genetic risks. Much of the work is still ongoing, but you can expect some exciting findings to be published very soon. What I can already share is the recent publication on how polygenic risk scores of ADHD overlap with other disorders and traits [3]. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated based on 12 genetic loci that are associated with ADHD based on earlier studies. In other words, the more risk variants you have on these loci, the higher your risk is for ADHD. Using the UK Biobank data, the researchers found that ADHD PRS were associated with higher body mass index, neuroticism, anxiety, depression, alcohol and nicotine use, risk taking and lower general cognitive ability (verbal-numerical reasoning). This suggests that the genes that contribute to ADHD are also involved in other traits and disorders that are often observed in people with ADHD. More knowledge on these genetic factors is expected from the studies that are now being conducted.

Searching for new treatment possibilities for ADHD and comorbid disorders

At the moment, there are no good treatments for obesity and substance use disorders, and there is little progress in the development of medication for ADHD in combination with depression. Within the CoCA project we are therefore investigating new treatment possibilities. In Frankfurt, Barcelona and London the first people with ADHD have received bright light therapy and physical exercise training to reduce symptoms of depression (the PROUD study). In Nijmegen this study will soon start as well. Meanwhile in Rostock (Germany), the circadian rhythm of participants with ADHD and other disorders is being measured. And in Frankfurt researchers are investigating the effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on the reward system in the brain.

CoCA researchers in Norway have been searching the literature for new druggable targets for ADHD and comorbid disorders. A publication on many promising druggable genes can be expected soon. The first group of targets will be tested in an animal models.

Collaborations with patient organisations

Two representatives of ADHD patient organisations also joined our meeting: Andrea Bilbow from ADHD Europe, who is a partner in the CoCA project, and Ken Kilbride from ADHD Ireland. It was good to have these experts with us, and discuss with them how we can best translate our research findings to the people who should benefit from these findings. In Ireland for instance, there is very little knowledge about adult ADHD amongst health care professionals. It is therefore essential that our knowledge is also transferred to them, so that they can provide better care.

With the help of Andrea and Ken, we came up with a lot of new ideas for ADHD Awareness Month. During the entire month of October we aim to generate more awareness about. We will specifically target schools, such as universities and German Berufschule to inform both pupils and teachers about how to recognise ADHD and comorbidities, in adolescence and adulthood.

What’s next?

With the project being almost half way, we feel that we’re progressing very well (and our external advisor Jim Swanson – who attend the meeting as well – agrees!). In the coming year, we expect many exciting publications to appear and we will organise several symposia on international scientific conferences to share with you what we’ve found. By collaborating with patient organisations across Europe we will also share our knowledge with patients, family members, health care professionals and teachers. You can follow all of our progress on this blog!

This blog was written by Jeanette Mostert. Jeanette is dissemination manager of the CoCA project.

Further reading

1: Solberg, Halmøy, Engeland, Igland, HAavik & Kungsøyr (2018) Gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity: a population‐based study of 40 000 adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acat Psychiatria Scandinavia, 137 (3): 176 – 186. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5838558/

2: Chen, Kuja-Halkola, Sjölander, Serlachius, Cortese, Farone, Almgvist & Larsson (2017) Shared familial risk factors between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and overweight/obesity – a population-based familial coaggregation study in Sweden. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 58 (6): 711-718. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28121008

3: Du Rietz, Coleman, Glanville, Wan Choi, O’Reilly & Kuntsi (2018) Association of Polygenic Risk for AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Co-occurring Traits and Disorders. Biological Psychiary CNNI, in press. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451902217302318?via%3Dihub



The up-goer five of ADHD

Launch of the Saturn V space shuttle (Wikimedia commons / by NASA)

Can you explain your research using only the thousand most common words in the English language? This challenge has been going around since Randall Munroe (famous for the xkcd comics) published a comic in which he explains how the Saturn V space shuttle works using only sketches and the thousand most common words. Hence the name up-goer five, as both the words shuttle and rocket are not in that list. The fun thing about this challenge is that it makes you think about what your research is really about, and formulate this using normal, everyday language.

As dissemination manager of CoCA (i.e. the person who tells other people what we find in our studies), I took it upon me to describe the CoCA project using only these thousand most common words. Luckily, someone was kind enough to create an online tool that tells you when you’re using a word that’s not in the list (so now I know that project and research are not allowed, but studies is. Yay!).

Now before I show to you the result of my effort, let me first write a disclaimer. One of the nice things about the richness of language is that you can use it for nuances. And nuance is something that scientists love. By specifically choosing your words, you can make clear what you mean exactly. Jargon helps us even more in this, because everyone else who knows this jargon knows exactly what you mean. Anyway, the disclaimer here is that if you use only the most common thousand words, you lose nuance. So  I know that ‘a person who cannot sit still and pay attention’ is a very poor description of a person with ADHD. But I challenge you to do better!

So here it goes, the CoCA project described in common English:

We study why people who can’t sit still and pay attention also often feel sad, or eat too much, or use too much of things that are not good for them and can’t stop with it. They have these problems more often than people who are better at sitting still and paying attention, and the problems get worse when they become older. We think that this is because their brain works a bit different. We try to help them by making them jump and run every day, and by giving them more light. And we give them a phone to show them what they should do, and how good they are doing each day. The jumping and running and more light each day should make them more happy. We also look in their brains for things that cause both not sitting still and eating too much, or not paying attention and feeling sad. When we understand better how these things in our brains can cause these problems, we can help the people who have these problems to get better.

What do you think? Does this help you to understand what the project is about? Or does it remain very vague (what problems? Which things in brains?).

I’m very curious to see if other CoCA researchers can do a better job at this. Or maybe they can describe their parts in the project using this online tool. And researchers from the other projects, Aggressotype, MiND, can use the tool to describe their projects. Challenge accepted?

Try it out yourself: http://splasho.com/upgoer5/ (or use the Norwegian or Spanish version!)

And in case you are now very curious about what the CoCA project is really about, you can read more about it here.

This post was written by Jeanette Mostert. Jeanette is dissemination manager of the CoCA project.

How bright light and physical exercise might help ADHD patients

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health condition that rarely occurs alone. More than 80 percent of adult ADHD patients suffer from a comorbid disorder, meaning there is at least one additional disease co-occuring with the primary disease.

In the case of ADHD, two common comorbid conditions are obesity and major depressive disorder. Therefore, the risk for comorbid obesity and major depressive disorder is increased in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Moreover, a disturbed circadian rhythm and altered sleep are key features of ADHD.

Bright light therapy, a so-called chronobiological modification, improves the day-night (circadian) rhythm and is an established therapy for major depression in adolescents and adults. Exercise prevents and reduces obesity in adolescents and adults along with improving depressive symptoms.

While these non-pharmacologic treatments are known to modulate dopaminergic transmission (DA) and circadian rhythm (CIRCA), two key mechanisms regulating mental wellbeing, no study has assessed their effect on ADHD and its comorbidities in an experimental setting yet. PROUD is therefore the first large scale, multicentre study to systematically evaluate the role of DA and CIRCA and scrutinize their potential relevance for developing disease biomarkers and thus obtaining measurable indicators for predicting and treating these ADHD comorbidities.

“The idea here is to employ non-pharmacological methods to improve patients’ lives. There is a well-established drug treatment for ADHD with stimulants – methylphenidate being the most famous one. However, that is only one step and we want to make use of the knowledge that sports on the one hand and bright light therapy on the other hand showed promising initial data to improve patients’ lives with ADHD”, says CoCA project coordinator Andreas Reif, Chair of the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Frankfurt in Germany.

“So we put that into a clinical study where we compared treatment as usual with add-on sports therapy or add-on bright light therapy. Over this ten-week trial, we will see whether this affects not only ADHD symptoms but overall health symptoms like depressive symptoms or weight.” 

Need a watchdog or motivator? There’s an app for that

Just how do you motivate obese patients to exercise regularly? “It’s very hard to get up and do sports on a daily basis”, says Reif. “We thought about how we can empower our patients to adhere to the study protocol. In order to do that, we have developed a mobile health application, the mHealth App.”

The mHealth App was specifically developed for the PROUD Study with the aim of keeping the patients motivated. “We achieve this by showing them videos of exercise, sending reminders as well as a daily feedback and summary on their achievements”, trial coordinator Jutta Mayer explains.

The study has started with its first participants at the University Hospital of Frankfurt in late March 2017. The CoCA team expects first results and insights by the end of 2017.

This post was written by Thomas Wagner-Nagy (concentris research management GmbH) and has also been submitted as a press-release to announce the start of the PROUD trial.

Our ADHD researchers in the media – Explaining the biology and treatment of ADHD

A short while ago, three of our professors were in the media, featuring an article and a TV-documentary about ADHD. Professor Andreas Reif wrote an elegant piece for the Frankfurter Algemeine – a German national newspaper – explaining the biology of ADHD and the need for treatment [see also this recent post on Andreas Reif’s recent appearances in German Media]. Around the same time, professors Barbara Franke and Phillip Asherson appeared in a documentary in which Britisch comedian Rory Bremner went on a personal mission to discover the science of ADHD. As not everyone can read German, and the BBC show is unfortunately only viewable inside the UK, I’ll tell you about the highlights of both pieces.

Fidgety Philip

Do you know the stories by Heinrich Hoffman (1845)? The psychiatrist who wrote a children’s book about naughty children. One of the stories is about Fidgety Philip – or Zappelphilip in German – a boy who can’t sit still and as a result pulls down the tablecloth including everything that’s on top of it, smashing all the table’s contents on the floor. Both Andreas Reif and Rory Bremner mention Fidgety Philip, as the characteristics of this boy resemble several symptoms of ADHD: fidgetiness, restlessness and impulsivity. This example illustrates that ADHD is not a new or modern day phenomenon.

Busy brains

Interestingly, it’s not just the behaviour of people with ADHD that is restless. As Rory Bremner describes it “the music in my brain is [..] pounding and rapid and switching”. This ‘busy brain’ is often described by people with ADHD. And this makes it logical to expect that you should be able to see this with an MRI-scanner – a machine that allows researchers to measure brain activity. Unfortunately, reality is not so simple. Despite a lot of research on people with ADHD and their brain activity, we still can’t diagnose ADHD by using a brain scan. As professor Katya Rubia explains to Rory Bremner, differences in the brains of people with ADHD, compared to those without ADHD, can be seen when you average over large groups (see figure below). For instance, children with ADHD have smaller brain structures in the frontal parts and in deeper areas of the brain (the basal ganglia). These regions are also known to be less activated in children with ADHD, when they need to inhibit a response. As an example, in the documentary Rory Bremner finds it very difficult to inhibit his comments about Katya Rubia’s accent and beauty. This could be due to under activation of his frontal brain and basal ganglia. However, the MRI findings are only based on averages, and can be very different for individual people. Just like that you can’t tell if someone is a man or a women just by measuring their length – even though men on average are taller than women – you can’t tell if someone has ADHD by just looking at their brains.

Meta-analysis of structural MRI studies in ADHD
Differences in brain structure between children with ADHD and children without ADHD. Results are averages from a meta-analysis of 27 studies. Yellow areas indicate decreased volumes in ADHD children compared to children without ADHD. From the study by Norman and colleagues, in JAMA psychiatry, 2016.


Fruit flies and ginger bread men

So why does someone have ADHD? Are you born with ADHD? Is it the fault of your parents? Or should we blame society? Extensive research has shown that there is a strong genetic component to ADHD. This means that you inherit the risk for developing ADHD from your parents – even when they don’t raise you, as for instance in the case of adoption. Professor Andreas Reif describes that there are hundreds or even thousands of genes that can contribute to ADHD. Each single gene by itself will not cause ADHD, but together they contribute to the risk for ADHD. The situation with the genes is therefore similar as to that of the brain scans: no gene test can prove that you have ADHD as there is too much variation between individuals. So why should we put time and money in investigating the genetics of ADHD?

For one thing, if we understand which combination of genes contributes to a high risk for developing ADHD, screening could help in early detection of those at risk. For instance, ADHD is known to often co-occur with other disorders, such as depression, substance abuse or obesity. If we know who is at risk of developing such a secondary disorder, the person can be informed about the importance of behavioural adaptations that reduce this risk, such as regular exercise in the case of obesity. Another reason is that better understanding of causal mechanisms can aid in developing new treatments for ADHD.

In order to study these causal mechanisms, professor Barbara Franke uses fruit flies (drosophila melanogaster). With these flies she can investigate which gene is associated with which specific aspect of ADHD, such as hyperactivity or inattention. In the documentary Barbara Franke shows Rory Bremner how she releases fruit flies in a specially designed maze. At the end of the maze, the fruit flies can find food. The more often they go through the maze, the better they learn the route. But while the flies go through the maze, they are being distracted by a light which they should ignore. For this experiment, some fruit flies have undergone modifications of genes that we suspect to pose risk for ADHD. And it turns out that the ADHD-like flies are more distracted by the lights than the ‘normal’ flies. In this way, we can find out which genes cause increased distractibility.

But it’s not just genes that contribute to ADHD. Although genes explain about 80% of ADHD, environmental influences, such as preterm birth or toxins during pregnancy also contribute to the risk for ADHD [i.e. see this recent post by Stephen Faraone)]. In the documentary, Peter Hill shows Rory Bremner how genetic and environmental factors can contribute to slightly different appearances – also called phenotypes – by baking gingerbread men. Peter and Rory bake several of these cookies, but with slight differences in the ingredients and procedure. One gingerbread man for instance is baked less long, which translates to environmental. The other gingerbread men lack eggs, contain less flour, or have no ginger. These are exemplary of the genetic influences of ADHD. All in all, the gingerbread men still look like gingerbread men – and probably are just as tasty – but knowledge about what happened in the preparation and baking process can help understand why they are different.

Medication & treatment

As mentioned earlier, ultimately we hope that a better understanding of ADHD enables better treatment. At the moment, psychostimulant medication, such as Ritalin and Concerta, is the most widely used form of treatment. As Andreas Reif explains, methylphenidate (which is the active substance in Ritalin) increases the availability of dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain. These two substances are necessary for a wide range of cognitive tasks, including learning, paying attention and inhibiting responses. In people with ADHD there seems to be too little dopamine available, which is why they benefit from this medication. Rory Bremner tries it for the first time in the documentary, just before he gives a comedy show. He describes the effect as “It’s a bit like someone switched my brain from techno radio 1 to classic fm”. However, as professor Phillip Asherson tell us, although this medication can help you to focus, some people will feel more nervous or restless. In that case, the medication doesn’t work for them.

Alternative forms of treatment are also being tested, such as neurofeedback. Friederike Blume from Tübingen shows Rory Bremner how she uses EEG (measuring electric signals in the brain by using a device that looks like a swim cap) combined with virtual reality in order to train people to improve their neural signals. Similar to going to the gym, regular neurofeedback training may help to improve brain functioning and hence reduce symptoms.

And what happens when ADHD is left untreated? In some cases, not so much. Rory Bremner was never diagnosed with ADHD, even though in the documentary he finds out that he does have all the symptoms of ADHD. For a comedian as himself, an impulsive and associative mind is very beneficial. However, for others, untreated ADHD can cause big problems. About 30% of the offenders in prison has ADHD, and most of them have not received treatment. As most of these offences concern impulsive offences, such as spraying graffiti, medication can help to prevent such behaviour.

So, what have we learned?

All in all, both the documentary and the newspaper article give us an idea of what the research on ADHD is all about: from fruit flies to brain scans, researchers are trying to discover the biology of ADHD. As Andreas Reif puts it, better knowledge and diagnostics of ADHD, in all stages of life, can greatly improve detecting and treating ADHD. And this can greatly improve quality of life of those with ADHD. That’s what inspires us to do the research.

This post was written by Jeanette Mostert. Jeanette is Dissemination Manager of the CoCA project. 

Second General Assembly meeting of the CoCA consortium was a great success – Some personal highlights

Enlightened, energised and slightly sunburned – that’s how I left the General Assembly (GA)-meeting of CoCA. This meeting took place from 19 – 22 March in Barcelona. After the kick-off meeting last year, this was the second time that all researchers came together and shared their findings, expertise and problems concerning the research on comorbid conditions of ADHD (CoCA). The meeting made clear that despite everyone’s different backgrounds, nationalities and expertise, we’re all working towards the same goal: reducing the burden of comorbid conditions in ADHD.

In 2 days I had listened to updates from researchers, talked about the latest findings and struggles in the various research groups, and informed the CoCA group about the progress we had made in the dissemination and valorisation workpackage. My ears were spinning, my throat was dry and my brain was tired, but the meeting had been a great success. Let me summarise my personal highlights from this meeting.

  1. Comorbid conditions in ADHD are prevalent, and costly

The first epidemiological findings of CoCA are currently being written up. Very large databases from Sweden, Germany and Estonia have been studied to investigate the prevalence and costs of comorbid conditions in ADHD. The results will likely make a strong case that comorbid conditions in ADHD are very common, and that better treatment of these conditions is expected to reduce societal costs. You can expect some interesting and important papers to appear this or next year.

What has already been published in the past year is for instance this paper on the genetic overlap between ADHD and bipolar disorder (Van Hulzen et al. 2016).

  1. The first intervention studies with patients have started

Other CoCA researchers have been working hard to get the first intervention studies up and running. In Frankfurt am Main, the first participants have started in the PROUD-trials (see this recent blog post). Using both bright-light therapy and regular physical exercises, we hope that symptoms of depression and obesity in adolescents and adults with ADHD will decrease. This same study will also run in Nijmegen (NL), London (UK) and Barcelona (SP). So no results yet, but exciting things are coming up!

  1. CoCA researchers are actively disseminating and communicating the project

On the dissemination and communication side, which I’m personally involved in, things are moving forward as well. I was very happy to hear from many different researchers how they are informing children, adults, patients, health care professionals and other parties about the work that we are doing. In Spain for instance, researchers go to schools to inform pupils about ADHD and comorbid conditions. And in Germany, health care professionals are informed about the co-occurrence of depression, substance abuse and obesity with ADHD. We are also closely collaborating with the ADHD patient organisation ADHD-Europe, who are a great help in disseminating our messages to ADHD patients and their families.

Additionally, this blog is receiving an increasing number of visitors and followers. Although still somewhat hesitant, the CoCA researchers themselves start to get excited about writing posts for this blog. And after I gave a workshop on ‘how to write a blogpost’ at this meeting, I expect that many more posts will appear in the next months.

  1. Philips is interested in our project and gave us useful advice

Besides the research findings and publications that CoCA will generate, we want the project to have additional societal impact. For instance, that the tools of our intervention study that we are now testing could be further developed by a company. We had therefore invited someone from Philips to join our meeting, listen to what we’re doing and give feedback from an industrial perspective. I learned for instance that when at Philips a new product is developed, they always first ask what problem they are solving, and for whom. Seems pretty obvious, right? But it’s a good thing to keep in mind also when designing studies.

  1. The weather was perfect

Let’s be honest, the weather in Barcelona was another highlight. Although most of the meetings were indoors, lunch and tea breaks allowed us to enjoy the Spanish sun. And if you’re coming from Northern Europe, this is a welcome treat after a long and dark winter. I would vote to have next year’s meeting in a sunny place again!


So now the real work starts. With the first results coming out, dissemination activities can really start taking place. We have also come up with the idea to make tip-sheets about CoCA that every member can use for dissemination. This way, our activities will be more coordinated and combined.

Keep following this blog for updates on CoCA (and the other consortia), as well as our new Twitter account @mindgap_psy

This post was written by Jeanette Mostert. Jeanett is Dissemination Manager of the CoCA project.

Transitioning from child to adult: a new declaration demands continuing support for ADHD in Europe

image ‘growing up’ by sillysirry via Diviantart

ADHD Europe – the European patient organisation for people with ADHD – has launched a declaration on behalf of teenagers with ADHD. The declaration states that adult services in all European countries should offer suitable care for teenagers with ADHD who transition into adulthood, and to adults who are newly diagnosed. Andrea Bilbow is the president of the ADHD Europe organisation. I asked her about the importance of this declaration, and what she thinks that the consequences of the declaration will be.

Why was this declaration to urgently needed?

“Well it’s a bit of a long story that goes back 20 years. We started as organisations to raise awareness for ADHD in children, and to organise good services for these children. In most European countries there now are good services for children with ADHD.”

“However, these children are all becoming adults. For many young people across Europe as soon as they reach 18 years of age, they find that transition to adult services is very poor.  In many cases treatment is withdrawn altogether leaving them vulnerable and at risk.  And for those fortunate enough to receive the medication that they need for ADHD in adulthood, the medication is no longer reimbursed. This puts a huge burden on families who often have two or more children with ADHD and who do not have the resources to pay for the medication. Only in one or two countries in Europe are there official adult licences for the medication needed by adults with ADHD. Besides medication, young adults with ADHD do not have access to the services for ADHD in adult clinics, while they were receiving help in children’s services.”

Why is it so important that adults with ADHD receive suitable care?

“18 is a very vulnerable age. It’s the age when adolescents move up to Higher Education or start with their first jobs. Having ADHD, these young people are vulnerable to substance abuse, academic failure, job loss, becoming homeless or even crime. Furthermore, many of them will be starting to drive. Studies have shown that  a significant number of young people with untreated ADHD will be involved in car accidents.”

“For years the EU has been trying to address the problem of school dropout in Europe, without success. Having medication for ADHD continue to be reimbursable and proper services for young adults with ADHD available would go a long way to reduce the number of young people who abandon education. So it is very, very important that they receive proper treatment and support. It’s probably one of the most important things you can do for this age group.”

People can now sign the declaration to show their support. What do you think will happen next?

“Well first of all, it’s amazing to see how much support we are receiving. The Declaration has been launched for only a week and already we have more than 500 signatures. More importantly, these signatures come from all over the world. But it also shows that what this declaration states is very much needed. Clearly, 18+ people across Europe are really struggling.”

“First, we will let this run for a couple of months to see how many signatures we can receive. We encourage professionals to also show their support: professors, doctors, medics, researchers, teachers, police. Anybody who has any stake in improving the lives of people with mental health problems. Once we have gathered this support, we will encourage the member countries to take it to their MEPs and try to get the required number of MEPs to sign the declaration in order for it to be discussed in the European Parliament. That is our mission. We will try to find out why  in some countries they don’t want psychiatrists to diagnose and treat adults with ADHD. This is a human right that’s being breached.”

This October is ADHD awareness month. The perfect moment for the ADHD Europe patient organisation to bring out this Declaration and to raise awareness for this important issue. You can find, and sign, the Declaration at the website of ADHD Europe: http://www.adhdeurope.eu/adhd-europe/adhd-declaration-2016.html

The Declaration also shows the importance of research on ADHD. The CoCA project for example will investigate the societal costs of ADHD and comorbid disorders. Such data can assist in persuading governments about the importance of providing suitable care for those – children and adults- with ADHD.

This post was written by Jeanette Mostert. Jeanett is Dissemination Manager of the CoCA project.